We measure emotion through observation of positive and not positive verbal and non-verbal cues.

Happiness – As a result of the multiple outdoor unstructured play breaks and Positive Action character lessons, children are exhibiting overall more positive behaviors at LiiNK schools. Smiling, laughing, saying nice things, encouraging one another, and just being happy are some of the emotions we observe at LiiNK play breaks. The charts below show the percentage of positive and not positive emotions shown by LiiNK students who had four 15-minute unstructured, outdoor play breaks daily vs. the comparison school students who had less than two play breaks and no character lessons daily.

[easy_chart chart_id='806']

Behavioral Measure

These behaviors are measured through observations using our own measure called LiiNK Classroom Observation Tool (L-COT). We monitor how many times students fidget, move around the room, stare in space, and visit with someone else while trying to do their work in the classroom. The comparison schools are matched demographically to each LiiNK school in the same school district. The comparison schools are doing business as usual – whatever the district requirements are, they continue to do. They do not have a character curriculum taught daily or more than two unstructured play breaks daily.

During the first year of the intervention, LiiNK students typically decrease their off-task behaviors by 25-35%. In following years, they level out at about 12-15% off-task behaviors in the classroom. On the other hand, comparison students either do not improve off-task behaviors in the first year, or see a slight increase, staying at about 35-40%. In following years and as students get older, comparison students steadily show much higher off-task behaviors in the classroom than LiiNK students.

The graph below shows results from the first year of a LiiNK school and its comparison school. More time on task in the classroom means quality instructional time. Additionally, ADHD is being masked in early years because students are getting more movement time outdoors, leading to less fidgeting and misbehavior in the classroom.

[easy_chart chart_id='914']